Biodiversity brochure

1. Molluscs (squid, octopus and other related animals) name, picture, description


Co-funded by the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union 

This publication [communication] reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.


Squid (Eledone moschata Lamarck) 

Squid  is very similar to octopus. It has 8 legs. Unlike an octopus, the cobwebs have one row of attachments. On the head, the protruding eyes beneath which are the fountains with which it drains the water and the black. Its color is changeable. It can change it thanks to the chromatofora cells that have pigments in them, which they can show or hide. It quickly and skillfully adjusts to the environment, both in color and in texture, by getting rid of the skin. The moonlight is characterized by dark spots on the body and a short dark line passing over the eyes. It is reactivated by ejection of water from the body. We find it on a sandy, muddy-sandy and sunken river. It is spread all over the Adriatic and the Mediterranean Sea.

 cuttle fısh (Turkey)

  1. Cuttlefish or cuttles[2] are marine animals of the order Sepiida. They belong to the class Cephalopoda, which also includes squidoctopuses, and nautiluses. Cuttlefish have a unique internal shell, the cuttlebone. Despite their name, cuttlefish are not fish but molluscs.

Cuttlefish have large, W-shaped pupils, eight arms, and two tentacles furnished with denticulated suckers, with which they secure their prey. They generally range in size from 15 to 25 cm (6 to 10 in), with the largest speciesSepia apama, reaching 50 cm (20 in) in mantle length and over 10.5 kg (23 lb) in mass.[3]

Cuttlefish eat small molluscs, crabs, shrimp, fish, octopus, worms, and other cuttlefish. Their predators include dolphins, sharks, fish, seals, seabirds, and other cuttlefish. The average life expectancy of a cuttlefish is about one to two years. Recent studies indicate cuttlefish are among the most intelligent invertebrates. Cuttlefish also have one of the largest brain-to-body size ratios of all invertebrates.


Medusozoa is a clade in the phylum Cnidaria, and is often considered a subphylum.[2][3] It includes the classes HydrozoaScyphozoaStaurozoa and Cubozoa. Not all Medusozoa are jellyfish.

The curled octopus (Turkey)

The curled octopus (Eledone cirrhosa), also known as the horned octopus,[3] lesser octopus or northern octopus,[4] is a species of cephalopod found in the northeast Atlantic, ranging from Norway to the Mediterranean, including the British Isles.

It has a broad, ovoid-shaped mantle and can reach a total length (including arms) of up to 50 cm (20 in). The head is narrower than the rest of the body with a filament over each eye. The octopus's colour is yellowish or reddish-orange to reddish-brown dorsally with diffuse rust-brown patches, and white on the underside. The skin is covered with very fine, closely set granulations, interspersed with larger warts. The relatively short arms have a single series of suckers on them and at rest are held with the tips lightly curled, hence the species's common name.[5]

The curled octopus is mainly found at depths between 0 and 150 m (0 and 492 ft) and may occur down to 800 m (2,600 ft). It lives in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, including the English Channel, the North Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea. In recent years the North Sea populations have increased, probably due to overfishing of large predatory fish such as Atlantic cod. This has had a knock on effect on crab and lobster fisheries as the curled octopus readily enters pots to take the bait or the catch. In seas of ScotlandE. cirrhosa is infrequently caught when trawling over rocky substrates and are more frequently captured when fishing over sandy or muddy substrates.[6]A survey using different methods found that Eledone cirrhosa was common and widespread throughout the Scottish inshore waters covered by fishing activity, from the shoreline down to 140m, on substrates ranging through rocky, stoney, sandy and muddy. Specimens were caught throughout the year but is most common in inshore waters during the summer months and moves further offshore to the trawling grounds in October–December.[7]

The Croatian part of the photos and the brochure was created by the students: Ana and Iva Brajković, Andrea Marinković, Mia Vojković, Lenka Ivčević, Marija Vitaljić and Željka Bulajić mentored by their Biology teacher Mrs. Josipa Poduje and the school project coordinator Mrs. Ivana Vrdoljak.